Edmonds Judd


Advance directives

Right to choose your healthcare

Healthcare choices can influence the quality of our lives. An advance directive can provide direction on the care you consent to, and do not consent to, when you are incapable of expressing your wishes.

An advance directive can be used when you do not wish to consent to a particular form of healthcare or where you wish to receive a certain form of treatment in situations where you are unable to provide instruction such as a blood transfusion or resuscitation. Your healthcare provider will consider your advance directive when you are unconscious, incapacitated or otherwise unable to provide informed consent.

Making an advance directive

There are a variety of ways to make a directive. There are online templates (see the footnote for one example[1]), you may wish to do your own using these as a guide (remember to sign and date!) or you may want to discuss this with us.

Is it valid?

Your advance directive must be expressed in clear terms. Although your advance directive may be made orally or in writing, a written directive will provide greater certainty and clarity.

Advance directives must be made at a time when you have mental capacity and are not unduly influenced by another person. You may have to show that you have received sufficient information from your healthcare provider to understand the implications of your decision, particularly in high-risk situations such as a critical accident. The information you will need to provide to meet these requirements will depend on the circumstances of your care.

You should send your advance directive to your doctor and other health professionals who look after you. Your family should also have a copy.

Not being able to use your advance directive

Your healthcare provider may respect your advance directive if they are aware of it. There are instances, however, where healthcare providers may not use your advance directive even if they are aware of it. An example is when a health professional is obliged to provide compulsory treatment for mental disorders under the Mental Health (Compulsory Assessment and Treatment) Act 1992.

There are also certain forms of treatment that you cannot consent to. For example, your healthcare provider cannot be compelled to assist in your death or to provide treatment that is not clinically available.

If your advance directive is uncertain, based on incorrect information or if it is unclear whether it applies to a given situation, your healthcare provider may decide to provide treatment if they believe it is in your best interests. In this instance, your healthcare provider must attempt to obtain your consent. This also applies if there is insufficient time to determine whether you have an advance directive, such as if there is an emergency or an accident. You will be given the appropriate medical care that is required at the time.

Enduring power of attorney

You may have appointed an attorney to make healthcare decisions on your behalf through an enduring power of attorney for personal care and welfare; your attorney must act in your best interests. As your advance directive is a representation of your interests, your attorney is likely to uphold the directive.

However, your attorney has a discretion on whether to uphold your directive. Ultimately, whether your advance directive will be respected will depend on its certainty and on the circumstances of your care. If your attorney decides that treatment or a refusal for treatment will better protect your welfare and best interests, they may instruct your healthcare provider to act contrary to your advance directive. It is, therefore, critical to discuss this with your attorney to ensure they understand your healthcare preferences.

How can we help?

With more healthcare options available, it is important that you have the best opportunity to decide what healthcare you would like to receive. Although there is no requirement for a lawyer to be involved in the process, we can help to ensure that your advance directive is clear, certain and applicable in most circumstances.

If you have not received treatment or have received treatment that you did not consent to, you can lodge a complaint with the Health and Disability Commissioner. If you need further guidance, please do not hesitate to your lawyer.

[1] www.myacp.org.nz/your-plan



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