Edmonds Judd


School boards of trustees

Significant obligations and responsibilities

Every three years, state and state-integrated schools hold elections for parent and staff representatives to join the governing bodies for their schools – the board of trustees (BoT).

School trustees are, however, sometimes confused or unsure about their role, and their obligations and responsibilities. The BoT is not like the PTA committee that co-ordinates parent helpers, organises school events, fundraises, etc.

A BoT role is like that of a company director. Although a school is not a commercial business, it should have robust governance processes in place that align with those of a well-run commercial business.

Health and safety aspects

The BoT is responsible for the governance and management of the school. It has discretion to manage the school within the parameters of the laws of New Zealand.

Alongside this governance approach, the Education & Training Act 2020 (E&TA) sets out the BoT’s obligations under the health and safety workplace laws. The Ministry of Education advises that:

School boards and early learning organisations are considered a PCBU (Person Conducting a Business or Undertaking) and must, so far as is reasonably practicable, provide and maintain a work environment that is without health and safety risks.

(Ministry of Education website)

A BoT is the legal entity that is the PCBU. If there is a health and safety failure at a school, the BoT could potentially face prosecution by WorkSafe under the Health and Safety at Work Act 2015 (HSWA).

The best possible policies, and rigid adherence to them, may still not prevent accidents or injuries from occurring. The potential always exists that actions may be taken that do not comply with the policies and issues that arise. In this situation, it would be fair to say that responsibility would fall on those responsible for those non-compliant actions if the obligations of the BOT are shown to have been fulfilled.

Even if the BoT delegates responsibility for these policies, it has over-arching responsibility for the school staff who are operating under those policies. The BoT must take an active role to ensure that any people under its control are safe, and that suitable guidelines are in place to identify and mitigate the risks being faced. Ultimately, it remains an obligation of the school and BoT to be responsible for their students’ safety.

EOTC risks

Out of school activities or education outside the classroom (EOTC) should be managed and controlled by reference to the BoT-approved health and safety policies.

To be effective, the policies must have measurable risk assessment components. For example: what are the risks and how serious is each risk? What is the likelihood of students and accompanying adults being hurt? How can these risks be managed by the activity leader? Does the school’s policy have a tool for assessing risk and the seriousness of the risk?

When things go wrong on an EOTC trip and a participant is badly hurt, there will be investigations by the police and WorkSafe and, if someone dies, the coroner. It is equally possible that, as the result of those investigations, charges could be laid if breaches have occurred.


Two recent cases[1] have shown that even with a successful WorkSafe prosecution, the fines awarded have either been reduced to $0, or set at a notional figure and payment has not been sought.

Regarding personal liability of BoT members, both the E&TA and HSWA contain exclusions of personal liability for board members provided that any act or omission was carried in good faith with the performance, or intended performance, of the BoT.

Trustees must fully understand their role

The BoT role is not one to be considered lightly, although training and guidance is available so trustees fully understand their responsibilities. BoTs are full of amazing and dedicated people who are doing their best for their community. A crucial part of that role is ensuring the everyday safety of the students and employees at their school.

Trustees must be aware that with the role comes responsibility and accountability. BoTs must manage their duties accordingly and fulfil all legal requirements.

[1] WorkSafe v Tauraroa Area School Board of Trustees [2022] NZDC 21558 and WorkSafe v Forest View High School Board of Trustees [2019] NZDC 21558


DISCLAIMER: All the information published in Fineprint is true and accurate to the best of the authors’ knowledge. It should not be a substitute for legal advice. No liability is assumed by the authors or publisher for losses suffered by any person or organisation relying directly or indirectly on this newsletter. Views expressed are those of individual authors, and do not necessarily reflect the view of Edmonds Judd. Articles appearing in Fineprint may be reproduced with prior approval from the editor and credit given to the source.
Copyright, NZ LAW Limited, 2022.     Editor: Adrienne Olsen.       E-mail: [email protected].       Ph: 029 286 3650

Budget 2023

Key points

With the country expecting a no-frills Budget to match the Hipkins’ government’s bread-and-butter focus on issues for 2023, this year’s Budget had few surprises.

The government has a tightrope to tread in trying to deal with inflation, supporting the recovery from the Covid pandemic, and managing the significant economic effects of the Auckland Anniversary floods and the devastation from Cyclone Gabrielle. The Minister stood by his earlier statement that there would be no tax cuts in this Budget, but there would be increased cost of living support.

Already announced over the last few weeks have been a $1 billion flood and cyclone recovery package, funding for climate change initiatives, and additional funding for education and the New Zealand Defence Force.

On the afternoon of Thursday 18 May, the Minister of Finance, the Hon Grant Robertson, presented the Wellbeing Budget 2023 – Support for today, building for tomorrow.

The Minister focused on four themes:

  • Supporting New Zealanders with the cost of living
  • Delivering the services New Zealanders rely upon
  • Recovery and resilience, and
  • Fiscal sustainability.

We summarise the key points of this year’s Budget.


Cost of living support

There is to be free public transport for children under 13 years old, and permanent half-price fares for those under 25 years old. The Minister said, “This will help passengers meet the cost of public transport and encourage increased use, while also supporting New Zealand to achieve its climate change goals.”

The $5 co-payment for prescriptions will be removed from 1 July.

The government has pledged to lower households’ energy costs. It has expanded its Warmer Kiwi Homes Programme providing around 100,000 new heating and insulation installations; 7,500 hot-water heat pumps; and five million LED light bulbs.

For early childhood education, eligibility criteria for 20 hours’ Childcare Assistance has been extended to cover two-year olds, as well as three-to-five year olds. The subsidy rates will be increased. This comes into effect on 1 March 2024.


Delivering more reliable services

The government has acknowledged the need to make significant investments to protect and improve public services for Kiwis.

Housing: There is increased funding to deliver 3,000 new state houses.

Education: As announced a week ago, there is a commitment to boost skills, improve achievement, reduce class sizes and increase teacher pay. There will be 6,600 additional student places, and new classrooms and schools to fit them in.

Health: The government is to focus on the effects of winter on the health system; the urgent need for more medical staff (including 500 nurses), and to reduce the massive waiting lists.

There is a commitment to spend more than $1 billion to increase the pay rates and boost staff numbers, and $20 million to lift Covid immunisation and screening for Māori and Pacific peoples.

The Budget includes a range of investments to support Māori and Pacific peoples. These include:

  • Investment of $223 million to improve housing outcomes for Māori. This includes $23 million for an extension to the Te Ringa Hāpai Whenua Fund and $200 million to increase the supply of Māori housing and to repair homes in Māori communities.
  • Supporting whānau and tamariki by expanding Whānau Ora services and support for wāhine hapū in the first 1,000 days of life for their pēpi, and
  • $143 million has been set aside to foster Māori and Pacific language and culture.


Recovery and resilience

The government has already announced its package for the recovery and its investment in regional resilience from the Auckland Anniversary floods in late January and Cyclone Gabrielle in February.  There is a commitment for $71 billion across the next five years for new and existing infrastructure investment (schools, hospitals, public housing, rail and road networks), in addition to funding set aside for projects that are still in the planning stage.

Acknowledging the need to rebuild New Zealand’s crumbling infrastructure, $6 billion over a 10-year period has been allocated for a new National Resilience Plan. Initially focusing on ‘building back better’ from the effects of the floods and cyclone, it will also fund the country’s long-term infrastructure deficit, and develop a credible pipeline to support the plan.


Fiscal sustainability

Whilst the Minister held fast on his promise not to raise income tax, the trustee tax rate (currently at 33%) will increase to 39% from 1 April 2024 bringing it into line with the top personal tax bracket. The Minister says this will create fairness and remove a potential loophole.

Whilst the Minister confirmed that the country’s economy has emerged from the three years of Covid in a ‘solid position’ – the economy expanded by 2.4% over the 2022 calendar year and modest growth is anticipated for this year – there are headwinds. The continuing impact of the war in Ukraine, and worldwide inflation will affect New Zealand’s economy.

Although inflation peaked at 7.3% in June 2022 and eased to 6.7% earlier this year, rising immigration to this country and the government’s investment in infrastructure projects will increase demand. This may put more pressure on the Reserve Bank to contain inflation.  Whilst New Zealand is not in a recession, recovery from the knocks of the past few years may take longer than anticipated. The government expects the books to return to surplus in 2025–26, a year later than Treasury’s December 2022 forecast.

The 2023 Budget is very much what the government had said it would do – no huge surprises and keeping a firm hand on the tiller to make New Zealand a better country in which to live. The proof, however, will be in the pudding as the year proceeds.


To read more detail about the Budget, click here for the Minister’s speech.

DISCLAIMER: All the information published in Commercial eSpeaking is true and accurate to the best of the authors’ knowledge. It should not be a substitute for legal advice. No liability is assumed by the authors or publisher for losses suffered by any person or organisation relying directly or indirectly on this newsletter. Views expressed are those of individual authors, and do not necessarily reflect the view of Edmonds Judd. Articles appearing in Commercial eSpeaking may be reproduced with prior approval from the editor and credit given to the source.

Copyright, NZ LAW Limited, 2021.     Editor: Adrienne Olsen.       E-mail: [email protected].       Ph: 029 286 3650